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Wednesday, September 21, 2016

Trump's Bold Plan for the Fourth Amendment

Politico reports on an exciting development in Donald Trump's policy proposals. When asked how he would address "violence in the black community," Trump was ready with this nuanced discussion of police procedures:

“I would do stop-and-frisk. I think you have to. We did it in New York, it worked incredibly well and you have to be proactive and, you know, you really help people sort of change their mind automatically,” Trump told the questioner. “You understand, you have to have, in my opinion, I see what’s going on here, I see what’s going on in Chicago, I think stop-and-frisk. In New York City it was so incredible, the way it worked. Now, we had a very good mayor, but New York City was incredible, the way that worked, so I think that could be one step you could do.”
The Politico headline says that Trump called for "national stop-and-frisk," so that's what I'll assume he said there.

I'm intrigued to see how Trump will manage to dictate local police policy from the national level, and how Trump will manage to overcome some procedural obstacles presented by a particular arcane 18th century legal doctrine. But if this is the same Trump that is going to "open up" libel laws, I doubt that pesky technicalities like the Constitution will be much of an obstacle.

Also, "you really help people sort of change their mind automatically?" Yeesh.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Illinois "Pidgey's Law" an Overly Hasty, Muddled Attempt at Regulating Augmented Reality

Several news outlets have reports on this bill (AB 6601) recently introduced by Illinois State Representative Kelly Cassidy. Nicknamed "Pidgey's Law," the bill was introduced in response to reports that players of the augmented reality game, Pokémon Go, were trampling the habitats of endangered species in a federal park.

From the Chicago Sun Times:
Cassidy introduced “Pidgey’s Law” on Wednesday during a news conference at the Loyola Dunes Restoration Site. Named after one of the game’s bird Pokémon, the bill aims to crack down on location-based game developers to remove problematic gaming sites from their maps.
. . .  
If passed, “Pidgey’s Law” would give game developers up to two days to remove a location-specific site from its game if that site’s property owner, manager or custodian requests its removal. After that, developers would be fined up to $100 each day until the stop is removed. 
The bill is in response to a Pokéstop — real-life locations gamers can visit for in-game perks — that rests at the center of the dune restoration area, which is protected under state and federal law. The stop, based on an art installation that stood there a few years back, sometimes draws players off the designated path into areas where some endangered wildlife lives. 
The hundreds of Pokémon Go players who frequent the area each night have caused increased littering and vandalism as well as occasional trampling of the wildlife when rare Pokémon appear in the augmented reality of the game.
Other news outlets report on the bill here, here, and here. A common theme in all of this reporting is that the purpose of the bill is to remove in-game landmarks (in Pokémon Go these are known as Gyms and PokéStops) from private property or environmentally sensitive areas at the request of property owners or managers.

But is this what the bill actually does? Below are the pertinent sections of the bill. To make efficient use of these extensive quotes, I've emphasized the terms that are either undefined or that cause problems:

Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Value Judgments in the Bluebook

In the harrowing world of the legal publication process, law review editors use the arcane and intricate rules of the Bluebook to dissect, complicate, elaborate, and brighten up citations in an incomprehensible swirl of multi-colored track-changes notes. The time-pressured author will often defer to the editors' suggestions and click the "accept changes" button at an accelerating pace, hoping that a hasty tempo will bring a swift end to the confusing mire of references to various multi-decimaled rules.

But often these rules are open to interpretation. Indeed, a quick series of searches of value-laden terms, such as "significant," "relevant," and "particularly" lead to a number of rules that seem suspiciously subjective for such an intricate book of rules.

Consider Rule 5.2(c) regarding the proper conduct for quoting a source with a mistake:

Significant mistakes in the original should be followed by “[sic]” and otherwise left as they appear in the original:
  • “This list of statutes are [sic] necessarily incomplete.”
(emphasis added here, and in the rest of these quotes). It appears that they will tell us what mistakes are "significant" in the 21st edition.

Rule 10.6.2 discusses parenthetical notations on quoted sources, and the extreme lengths to which one may go in flagging and exploring citations:
When a case cited as authority itself quotes or cites another case for that point, a “quoting” or “citing” parenthetical is appropriate per rule 1.5(b). Within the parenthetical, the same rules regarding typeface, pincites, and short forms apply to the quoted or cited authority as if it were the direct source:
  • Zadvydas v. Davis, 533 U.S. 678, 719 (2001) (Kennedy, J., dissenting) (citing Shaughnessy v. United States ex rel. Mezei, 345 U.S. 206 (1953)).
Note, however, that only one level of recursion is required. Thus, if a case quotes a case, which itself quotes another case, only one level of “quoting” or “citing” parentheticals is necessary. An additional level of parenthetical information may be used if the information conveyed is particularly relevant.
This appears to be the same rule employed in the portion of Rule 10.4 which governs whether one should list a department or district of an intermediate state court:
Do not indicate the department or district in citing decisions of intermediate state courts unless that information is of particular relevance:
  • Schiffman v. Corsi, 50 N.Y.S.2d 897 (Sup. Ct. 1944).

When the department or district is of particular relevance, that information should be indicated as follows:
  • Schiffman v. Corsi, 50 N.Y.S.2d 897 (Sup. Ct. N.Y. Cnty. 1944).
  • Lee v. Perez, 120 S.W.3d 463 (Tex. App. 14th 2003).
Vagueness and value judgments even dictate how the powers that be who author the Bluebook interact with the mere mortals in the legal world. From the message associated with the "Blue Tips" pages:
The editors provide authoritative guidance to reasonable questions on subjects covered by The Bluebook. The most useful answers are gathered here as Blue Tips, classified by subject. These tips are searchable and linked to theBluebook content they address. Send your questions to If our answer is useful to Bluebookers generally, it may be formulated into a new tip, below.
I was able to write this post after conducting a few searches over the course of 15 minutes or so (while also watching The Blacklist). Goodness only knows how many more value judgments the Bluebook contains, and how truly subjective the law review editing process really is.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

Can a Map Maker be Sued for Nuisance?

In a recent post I discussed whether one could sue a map maker for nuisance. For example, say a map maker were to write on a widely-distributed map that a particular house on a street corner was ugly and that people should heckle it. This would appear to constitute a nuisance under section 822 of the Restatement (Second) of Torts which states:
One is subject to liability for a private nuisance if, but only if, his conduct is a legal cause of an invasion of another's interest in the private use and enjoyment of land, and the invasion is either 
(a) intentional and unreasonable, or 
(b) unintentional and otherwise actionable under the rules controlling liability for negligent or reckless conduct, or for abnormally dangerous conditions or activities.
After a bit of digging, I found one case that involves a lawsuit for nuisance based on a map. While not identical to my hypothetical, it is close enough to be noteworthy, and is the only case of its kind of which I am aware. The case is Figlar v. Edwards, 2000 Conn. Super. LEXIS 2897 (Conn. Super Ct. 2000), and it is an unreported superior court decision from Connecticut. A publicly accessible version of the opinion is here.

The relevant facts and nuisance analysis are as follows:

The present case arises from the flooding of a parcel of property. The most recent complaint is in four counts, the first of which sounds in negligence, the second in reckless and wanton misconduct, the third in nuisance and the fourth in misrepresentation. The defendant moves to strike the second, third and fourth claims as well as two prayers for relief. 
John Figlar and John G. Howell purchased the property in question. The defendant, Larry Edwards, doing business as Larry Edwards Associates, allegedly provided "surveying and engineering services commencing from on or about August of 1991 up to and including October 1997 to the property, realtors, contractors, the planning and zoning commission of the town of Newtown, the plaintiffs and other general contractors and/or their agents and/or their advisors for purposes of developing said property . . ." The defendant subsequently filed a resubdivision map with the Newtown town clerk. 
In October 1997, Figlar and Howell commenced construction on the property and engaged the services of the defendant to design and layout the septic system in reliance on the defendant's survey. Subsequently, the septic system and the property flooded because the defendant either failed to find, or failed to indicate, that a storm water drainage system passed on, over and through the subject property.
. . .

As to the third count of the complaint which alleges, in relevant part, that: "9. The defendant, Larry Edwards, failed to disclose and/or depict the drainage easement upon the resubdivision map and that failure has a natural tendency to create a danger of flooding, damage and injury to the plaintiff property owners and the general public in the surrounding area. 10. The defendant's failure to depict this storm water drainage system on the resubdivision map created the continued and repeated dangers of flooding and damages to the plaintiffs' property and the surrounding areas. 11. The defendant, Larry Edwards, was charged to create an accurate resubdivision map of the subject area and he failed, despite knowledge to the contrary, to depict the storm water drainage system upon his resubdivision map. 12. This violation of the A-2 survey requirements and the inaccuracies of the defendant, Larry Edwards, violated the general public's rights to accurate and professional information contained in the recorded public maps and therefore also produced a common injury to the plaintiffs and the general public who relied upon him to properly depict said water drainage system and thereby allow for proper and reasonable development of land and prevention of damages and floodings." 
Both parties characterize this count as one sounding in public and private nuisance. A cause of action for private nuisance has four elements: "(1) the condition complained of had a natural tendency to create danger and inflict injury upon person or property; (2) the danger created was a continuing one; (3) the use of the land was unreasonable or unlawful; (4) the existence of the nuisance was the proximate cause of the plaintiffs' injuries and damages." (Emphasis in original; internal quotation marks omitted.) Walsh v. Stonington Water Pollution Control Authority, 250 Conn. 443, 449 n.4, 736 A.2d 811 (1999). In order to allege a public nuisance, a plaintiff must also allege the additional element that "the condition or conduct complained of interfered with a right common to the general public." Id., 459 n.9. 
The defendant asserts that because there is no allegation that the defendant owned, controlled and/or utilized any piece of land in an unreasonable fashion, the plaintiffs have failed to state a cause of action in either public or private nuisance. The plaintiffs claim that it was the maps that were the nuisance causing property. They fail to cite any authority, and the court is aware of none, for the novel argument that nuisance liability extends to those who have ownership or control over a map. The court agrees with the defendant that the plaintiffs fail to allege a necessary element of either public or private nuisance, as they do not allege that the defendant caused them any harm by way of unreasonable use of real property.
Connecticut nuisance law appears to have the added element that a defendant's conduct relate to the defendant's use of land. Accordingly, a defendant who interferes with another's enjoyment of property in some manner that does not involve the use of land cannot be liable for nuisance.

Under the Restatement definition of nuisance, however, I suspect that the Figlar plaintiff may have a viable cause of action. The Restatement does not require that the defendant own or use land in a certain manner, and if the plaintiff's allegations are correct, the defendants may well be liable for their failure to disclose a drainage easement if it results in damage to the plaintiff's property.

Monday, August 22, 2016

Volokh (and Dolinko's) Lost Maxims of Equity

Here's some informative Monday evening scholarship for those who are interested in learning more about remedies, equity, or life in general. My favorite maxim, which I try to include in every motion I write is "Equity delights in a good practical joke," although "Equity is crunchy on the outside, soft and chewy on the inside," is a close second.

For those interested in California's attempt at generating interesting maxims / fortune cookie sayings, check out this post on California's Maxims of Jurisprudence.

Friday, August 19, 2016

"Virtual Property," "Virtual Trespass," and Nuisance Law: A Pokémon Go Story

This post is a spinoff from some of my recent posts on Pokémon Go litigation which you can find here and here. Pokémon Go's popularity and related litigation has prompted commentators to discuss notions of "virtual property," and related questions of who owns virtual property and whether it can be invaded in instances of "virtual trespass." I think that "virtual property" and "virtual trespass" are poor choices of wording that lead to confused discussions and the breakdown of legal analysis.

My suggestion: stop using these terms. Rather than "virtual property," instead say, "right to enjoyment of property." Rather than "virtual trespass," instead say, "interference with the right to enjoyment of property." In short, nuisance law provides an effective avenue for coherent legal treatment and analysis of Pokémon Go and other augmented reality games. Notions of trespass lead to confusion and unanswerable questions.

For the story that prompted these legal musings, CTV News reports:
A French mayor has denounced the "anarchical settlement" of "Pokemon Go" characters on the "territory" of his eastern village and has ordered the game's creator to remove the virtual creatures.

Bressolles Mayor Fabrice Beauvois said Tuesday that he has mailed a decree to California-based Niantic Inc. and The Pokemon Company to make sure they stop setting up Pokemons [sic] in the village of about 800 inhabitants northeast of Lyon.

In his decree, the mayor says the search for Pokemons [sic] puts pedestrians and drivers at risk because players get inattentive while watching their smartphones and that it may also result in groups of people forming at night
You can find additional reporting on the decree here and here.

The article goes on to note that while Niantic has not responded regarding the mayor's request, Niantic has pointed out that people can request that the company remove a location's designation as a Gym or PokéStop. This solution, however, would not address that mayor's concern, who is requesting that the "territory" of his village be removed from the App's augmented reality altogether.

Here's the logic the mayor used:

"When a cafe or a restaurant owner wants to open a business in any French town, they have an obligation to request prior authorization to the mayor. The rule applies to all people wishing to set up an activity or occupy a space on a public property. So it applies to Niantic as well, even though their settlement is virtual," Beauvois said.

The argument illustrates an interesting question: does Pokémon Go's placement of interactive locations and randomly-generated digital creatures onto a map constitute trespass or interference with property rights? Keith Lee confronts this question in this excellent article.

One of the particularly interesting questions Lee raises goes as follows:

You might argue that [Augmented Reality] object[s] aren’t real. That they don’t constitute a physical invasion of property. But:
  • To recover in trespass for an intangible invasion to property, a plaintiff must show: (1) an invasion affecting an interest in exclusive possession; (2) the act resulting in the invasion was intentional; (3) reasonable foreseeability that the act could result in an invasion of the plaintiff’s possessory interest; and (4) substantial damage to the property. Borland v. Sanders Lead Co., Inc., 369 So. 2d 523, 2 A.L.R.4th 1042 (Ala. 1979).
Does your exclusive rights to property extend to cyberspace? Can someone place lights, sounds, objects, that are only viewable with technology assistance, on your property without your permission?

As Lee's final question indicates, the notion of "virtual space," when viewed through the lens of augmented reality games like Pokémon Go, leads to mind-bending questions over the definition and extent of "trespass." The interactive nature of augmented reality certainly lends an intuitive push towards accepting the trespass analogy. But taking a step back, putting down the phone, and taking a broader look at how the augmented reality system works leads to a breakdown in applying the logic of trespass. People's houses are not being overrun by small creatures, Pokéballs are not flying through windows -- people's physical property is not being invaded. Without the invasion, the trespass analogy breaks down.

Property owners, however, are not without a remedy. The law of property is not limited to physical property and its invasion. The law of nuisance extends to one's property rights, and interference with those rights. It is through nuisance, not trespass, that property owners may successfully argue that Niantic is causing them harm.

A series of illustrations may help clarify the argument. I'll start with an example involving one of the first forms of augmented reality technology: maps.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Michigan Residents File Pokemon Go Class Action Lawsuit

The attorneys at Pomerantz Law are at it again, and are attorneys of record in a Michigan class action lawsuit against Niantic and Nintendo. The allegations in the Michigan complaint overlap significantly with those in a Massachusetts class action lawsuit that I blogged about at the beginning of August filed by a Massachusetts resident. Both complaints were filed in the District Court for the Northern District of California.

Click On Detroit reports about the new class action -- which also alleges causes of action for nuisance and unjust enrichment -- filed by a Michigan couple living in St. Claire Shores, a suburban town located near Detroit that will be holding a Fence Arbitration meeting today for those who may have forgotten to mark their calendars. Reporting by Bloomberg Markets (on the lawsuit, not the Fence Arbitration meeting) can be found here.

A copy of the Complaint can be found attached to the Click on Detroit article. Its substance significantly overlaps with the Massachusetts Complaint, and it too includes multiple bold, italicized mentions of how "Niantic even placed three Pokéstops within the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum." That part never gets old.

One improvement in the Michigan Complaint is that it has more facts regarding how Pokémon Go affected the plaintiffs' lives. As you may recall, the Massachusetts Plaintiff's allegations were little more than a complaint about several people walking near his house and knocking on his door on a few occasions. The Michigan Complaint is more detailed. The factual allegations are largely copied from letters the Plaintiffs wrote to Niantic, and here is an example of some of that quoted language. Trigger warning: bold italics:

At any given moment there are at least a couple of hundred people in the park play[ing] this game, compared to the average of at least 15-20 in the park. The [Pokéstops and Pokémon gyms] . . . [are] an open invitation for the players to utilize our street, our lawns, looking in our windows . . . and so forth. There are at least 30 homes . . . that are affected by this. These players are loud, make threats, [are] intrusive, and I do not feel safe. My husband and I moved to our home almost two years ago because it was peaceful, quite, and safe. When I see people driving slow, looking into our home, walking on our property, looking into our vehicles, we do not feel safe. Neither do the neighbors. . . .

. . .

With all the traffic it is hard to tell who is playing the game, or casing out our street/park, someone who is looking to rob, rape or any other harm. . . . They park along our street that borders Wahby Park, we ask them to move and get threats and attitudes. I was threatened by a man who refused to leave. He was parked in front of my home. I had hardly any room to back out of my driveway. Mind you, he was also parked the wrong way on the street. . . . I truly hope you will take this into consideration, the news has already been in the park twice, and have interviewed neighbors on this issue.
To paraphrase, the plaintiffs live near Wahby Park which, in addition to being a great place for weddings, allegedly has six PokéStops, where players can collect items and place "lures" that attract Pokémon. This has led to a crisis of numerous people going to the park, and wreaking havoc in the surrounding neighborhood. Plaintiffs allege that players are walking on their yards, blocking driveways, and even include a picture of a potential hipster giving side-eye to the camera.


Plaintiffs seek to establish a class and use the same definition as the Massachusetts Plaintiff, which is:
All persons in the United States who own property (i) the GPS coordinates of which were designated by Defendants, without authorization, as Pokéstops or Pokémon gyms in the Pokémon Go mobile application or (ii) abutting property the GPS coordinates of which were designated by Defendants, without authorization, as Pokéstops or Pokémon gyms in the Pokémon Go mobile application.
For reasons I explain at length in this prior post, I think this class definition is likely to fail.

For a reason specific to this lawsuit, though, I think this Complaint has faces an additional, serious problem because the named plaintiffs do not appear to fall into the class. The plaintiffs include an illustration of the neighborhood as it appears in the app:

From this illustration, it appears that all of the PokéStops and Gyms are in the park, which is public property. The park is separated from all surrounding homes by a road. Accordingly, there appear to be no areas of private property that "abut" PokéStops or Gyms. This is a problem for the Complaint as a whole because the lead plaintiffs need to be members of that class. Plaintiffs might argue that their property falls within the 70-meter radius where people can interact with the stop or the gym, but this does not appear to fit the fairly specific, GPS-coordinate-based class definition.

I will continue to monitor both Pokémon Go class action lawsuits, and I will do my best to post updates as they proceed. I suspect that the plaintiffs in both will face some significant obstacles, but the law firm spearheading this effort doesn't appear to be slowing down at this point.